Algorithm and counting in C++

An algorithm is used to do the operations on the contents of a container. An operation can be searching, sorting, initializing, and transforming the elements of a container. Header <algorithm> must be used for algorithms.

Counting: count() and count_if() algorithms are used for counting.

Template class declaration for count() algorithm:

template <class InIter, class T> size_t count(InIter start, InIter end, const T &val);

Template class declaration for count_if() algorithm:

template <class InIter, class UnPred> size_t count_if(InIter start, InIter end, UnPred pfn);

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