Types of operating systems:
1) Operating systems for mainframe: A mainframe operating system provides transaction processing, batch processing, and timesharing services. Transaction system is for processing transactions, batch system processes routine tasks, and timesharing system can be used for multiple remote users to run tasks at the same time. Example of a mainframe operating system is OS/390.
2) Operating systems for servers: These types of operating system run in a server. It is used by many users in a network. It provides services like file service, print service, and Web service. Example of server operating systems are: Linux, Windows Server, Solaris, and FreeBSD.
3) Operating systems for multiprocessors: Multiprocessor system is the one which has several CPUs connected to a single system. Operating systems for multiprocessors provide services like connectivity, communication, and consistency. Example: Windows, Linux.
4) Operating systems for personal computers: It is operating system for a personal computer. For Example: Windows, Mac, Linux, and FreeBSD.
5) Operating Systems for handheld devices, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), cell, mobile phones: These operating systems are run in PDAs and cell phones. They provide services like phone calls, and photography. For Example: Symbian, Palm, Android, iOS.
6) Operating Systems for embedded systems: These are the operating systems which run on embedded systems like TV, DVD players, cell, MP3 players, etc. Example: VxWorks, QNX.
7) Operating Systems for sensor node: A sensor node is a battery powered small computer with radio. A network of sensor nodes are used for measuring temperature, for securing perimeter of a building, weather forecasting, fire detection in forests, etc. Operating systems in these sensor nodes have a simple design, event driven, and to make measurement by using clocks. Example: TinyOS.
8) Operating Systems for Smart cards: A smart card is a small card with integrated chip. A smart card is used for authenticating a user, for payment processing, to identify a user, etc. For Example of a smart card operating system: MULTOS.
9) Real Time operating systems: A real time operating system is used in real time computers. For this operating system, time is the main parameter. Real time system can be classified to:
a) Hard real time system: In a hard real time system an action has to happen in particular time duration. It is used in industries, avionics, military, etc.
b) Soft real time system: In a soft real time system actions can be delayed without any side effects. It is used in digital telephones and multimedia systems.
Example of real time operating systems: LynxOS, RTLinux, Windows CE.