Architecture of monolithic system: In a monolithic system the whole operating system runs as a collection of procedures one binary program in kernel. In this architecture all individual procedures are bind together in one executable file. Binding is done by using linker. There is no package or encapsulation between procedures. The architecture of a monolithic system can be divided to three sets of procedures:
1) Main procedure which is used for calling a service procedure.
2) Service procedures for handling system calls.
3) Utility procedures for assisting service procedures.
Working of monolithic system: Parameters are pushed to stack. Then, TRAP instruction is executed for switching from user mode to kernel mode. Then, operating system fetches parameters to determine which system call needs to be run. After that, system call number is dispatched to a particular system call handler and system call handler is run.