History and milestones in development of SQL (Structured Query Language)

Below given is the history and milestones in development of SQL (Structured Query Language):

  • 1970: Dr. E.F. Codd, a researcher in IBM, defined relational database model in an article “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks”.
  • 1974: System/R project started by IBM; First article which describes SEQUEL language is published.
  • 1978: Customer tests conducted for System/R project.
  • 1979: First commercial RDBMS is introduced by Oracle Corp.
  • 1981: Ingres is introduced by Relational Technology; SQL/DS is introduced by IBM.
  • 1982: SQL standards committee is formed by ANSI (American National Standards Institute).
  • 1983: DB2 is announced by IBM.
  • 1986: ANSI SQL1 standard is ratified; RDBMS is introduced for transaction processing by Sybase.
  • 1987: ISO SQL1 standard is ratified.
  • 1988: SQL Server for OS/2 is announced by Microsoft.
  • 1989: First TPC benchmark (TPC-A) is published.
  • 1990: TPC-B benchmark is published.
  • 1991: SQL Access Group database access specification is published.
  • 1992: ODBC specification is published by Microsoft; ANSI SQL2 standard (SQL-92) is ratified; TPC-C (OLTP) benchmark is published.
  • 1993: First shipment of specialized SQL data warehousing systems; First shipment of ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) products.
  • 1994: First commercial shipment of parallel database server technology.
  • 1996: Standard API for OLAP (Online analytical processing) database access and OLAP benchmark is published.
  • 1997: DB2 architecture is unified across IBM and other vendor platforms by IBM DB2 UDB (International Business Machines, DB2, Universal Database); Java integration strategies were announced by vendors.
  • 1998: Enterprise level database support for Windows NT is provided by Microsoft SQL Server 7; Database and Internet integration is provided by Oracle 8i; First time shipment of commercial in-memory database products.
  • 1999: JDBC database access is standardized from application servers by J2EE.
  • 2000: Application servers with integrated database caching are introduced by Oracle Corp; SQL Server 2000 is introduced by Microsoft.
  • 2001: XML integration in RDBMS products; Informix database is acquired by IBM.
  • 2002: IBM is ranked Number 1 database vendor by Gartner.
  • 2006: Integration of XQuery (XML Query Language developed by W3C: World Wide Web Consortium) with SQL.
  • 2008: ORDER BY is legalized outside cursor definitions. Addition of INSTEAD OF triggers, and TRUNCATE statement.

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